”No woman can be called barren these days for there are numerous modern medical means to make her produce a baby.”


''No woman can be called barren these days for there are numerous modern medical means to make her produce a baby.''

”No woman can be called barren these days for there are numerous modern medical means to make her produce a baby.”

About 1 in 7 couples can have some problems conceiving a baby. However, over 8 in 10 couples having regular sex (every two to three days) will conceive within one year if the woman is aged less than 40 years. In addition, of those couples who do not conceive in the first year, about half will do so in the second year.

There are various causes of infertility, both in men and in women. However, there will be no reason found for the infertility in about 3 in 10 cases. In around 4 out of 10 cases disorders are found in both the man and the woman. Some reasons are easier to treat than others.

What is infertility?

Infertility means difficulty in conceiving (becoming pregnant) despite having regular sex when not using contraception. There is no definite cut-off point to say when a couple is infertile. However, Doctors usually say that a couple is infertile if they have not conceived in two years, despite regular sexual intercourse. Not producing eggs (ovulating) is the cause of problems in about 3 in 10 couples. Fallopian tube, neck of the womb (cervix) or womb (uterine) problems are the cause in about 2 in 10 couples with infertility.

The most common reason for male infertility is a problem with sperm, due to an unknown cause. The sperm may be reduced in number, less mobile (less able to swim forwards), and/or be abnormal in their form. No cause can be found in about 3 in 10 couples with infertility.

Older women tend to be less fertile than younger women. The fall off of fertility seems to be greatest once you have past your middle 30s. For women aged 35-39, the chance of conceiving is about half that of women aged 19-26. It is also thought that men over the age of 35 are half as likely to achieve a pregnancy when compared with men younger than 25. Stress can be a factor. If the male or the female partner is stressed, this can affect libido and how often the couple has sex.

What are the main treatments used for infertility?

Fertility treatments can be grouped into three categories:

•Medicines to improve fertility – these are sometimes used alone, but can also be used in addition to assisted conception.

•Surgical treatments – these may be used when a cause of the infertility is found that may be helped by an operation.

•Assisted conception – this includes several techniques such as intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

Medicines are mainly used to help with ovulation. Ovulation is when the ovary makes and releases an egg (ovum).

The situations where surgery may be an option include:

Fallopian tube problems, Endometriosis, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Fibroids, male infertility etc

Intrauterine insemination (IUI) – This is the process by which sperm are placed into the woman’s womb.

In vitro fertilization (IVF) – IVF means fertilization outside of the body. In vitro literally means in glass (that is, in a laboratory dish or test tube). IVF is mainly used in couples whose infertility is caused by blocked Fallopian tubes, or unexplained infertility.

Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) – A gamete is an egg or sperm. Eggs and sperm are collected in the same way as for IVF.

The eggs are mixed with sperm. The mixture of eggs and sperm is then placed into one of the woman’s Fallopian tubes. Therefore, unlike IVF, the sperm fertilizes the egg naturally inside the woman’s Fallopian tube or womb, and not outside the body in a laboratory dish. GIFT is no longer recommended to be used instead of IVF.

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) – This technique involves an individual sperm being injected directly into an egg. (It is injected into the outer part of the egg – the cytoplasm). This method bypasses any natural barriers that may have been preventing fertilization. For example, some cases of infertility are due to the sperm of a male partner not being able to penetrate the outer part of the egg to fertilize the egg.

ICSI can also be used when a male partner has a low sperm count, as only one sperm is needed. If needed, a sperm can also be obtained by a small operation to the testis. This may be done when sperm cannot be produced in the usual way. For example, if the male partner has a blocked vas deferens, or has had a vasectomy. The egg containing the sperm is then placed in the womb in the same way as with IVF.

ICSI is used for couples who have failed to achieve fertilization through IVF, or where the quality or number of sperm is too low for normal IVF to be likely to succeed.

Egg donation – This involves stimulating the ovaries of a female donor with fertility medicines, and collecting the eggs which form. The eggs are mixed with and fertilized by sperm of the recipient’s partner (similar to IVF).

After 2-3 days, embryos are placed in the womb of the recipient via the cervix. This method is an option for women who have ovarian failure and cannot produce eggs; who have had their ovaries removed; who have conditions where the ovaries do not work (for example, in Turner syndrome); and where there is a high risk of transmitting a genetic disorder to the baby.
It is also used in certain cases of IVF failure.

Embryo donation – Couples who have had successful IVF treatment may decide to donate any spare embryos to help other infertile couples.

Other treatments
Some people suggest that supplements including zinc, selenium, and vitamin E may be helpful for men who have abnormal sperm counts due to an unknown cause. However, the evidence to support them is weak

Note: There is not much treatment available for miscarriages. Many women let nature take its course. Miscarriage means you have lost the baby. Use of progesterone hormone has been suggested but no concrete evidence that it prevents miscarriage.

When you meet couples who are not able to conceive give them these options and suggest that they discuss them with their Gynecologists.

How to select the Best Medical School.

How to select the Best Medical School.

By: Michael Chigozie Nwalozie



A professional who practices medicine is said to be a Doctor. He/she is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health via the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.

The concept of ‘How to select the best medical school’ towards ensuring the ‘best’ Doctor’s care and/or knowledge is of great concern. Honestly, this must be a very challenging process. More so, it is noteworthy to mention that, almost every applicant has a few dream schools that, they would love to attend. Perhaps, not every applicant meets the school’s admission requirements.

Well, I [Michael Chigozie Nwalozie ~ http://about.me/michael.c.nwalozie] have been privilege to attend Best Medical Schools that runs the British and American Curricula. These are the Medical Systems in the world today towards awarding either a degree: MBBS – Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery or M.D – Doctor of Medicine. Additionally, I will share the knowledge on how to select the best medical school under these two medical systems. [British and American.]

How do you select the best medical school? There are some vital things to consider when determining your strategy.

1. Geographical Location: It’s important to know before you begin applying, for both financial and personal reasons, where you’re willing to spend the next four years to seven years of your life. Many times, applicants impressed or flattered by being admitted to a great school in a less desirable city end up struggling through medical school.

It is noteworthy that, restricting yourself geographically to a certain area—especially popular ones like New York, Washington D.C., London; Lagos, Abuja, Zaria or Nsukka in Enugu State, Nigeria—could hinder your chances for admission in some of the best medical schools. However, in some instances, such as applying to schools in your home state (where state residents are normally preferred), geographic restrictions could be advantageous.

2. The Number of Medical schools: This question comes up often. How do you balance your desire to find the right school (and get accepted) while not spending too much time and money applying to numerous schools? In Africa, specifically, Nigeria [British curriculum], you have basically two options – First and Second choice schools. Preferably, Federal and/or State school via the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB) Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) for the year.

Generally, in the United States and the United Kingdom, it’s a good idea to aim for 13 to 15 schools. Depending on geographic restrictions, it’s best not to apply to fewer than 10 or more than 20. Even if you are worried about your grades, MCAT score, or an unusual circumstance, applying to more than 20 schools will drain your time and money, while potentially compromising your ability to prepare quality application materials.

3. Your GPA and MCAT score: When choosing where to apply, it’s a good idea to take a look at the average accepted students’ profiles at schools you’re interested in and see how you compare. In Africa (Nigeria), you must have a minimum of five credit passes in your relevant course of choice [for a start]. Most medical schools provide this information on their website [Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB) Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME)], and the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) site also has helpful statistics.

Don’t get too discouraged by the numbers; remember that the averages include numbers both above and below the mean. So a school with an entering class mean GPA of 3.6 has accepted students with both 3.4 GPAs and 3.8 GPAs. If you’re below the average of a school in which you’re really interested, it might still be worth applying, particularly if your other materials (such as your personal statement, mini statements, and secondary application) are strong.

4. School tiers: Applying to the right mix of schools is key to maximizing your chances of getting that coveted acceptance letter. Researching the websites of schools to see if they offer specific programs, research tracks, or other opportunities is a good way to start. The AAMC has a comprehensive list of medical schools if you’re unfamiliar with them or would like to broaden your options.

Generally, it’s best to apply to a few schools in a tier where your numbers match the average accepted applicants profile, a few higher-tier reach schools where your numbers may be a little lower, and one or two backup schools where your numbers are much higher than the average student’s. You should also apply to public medical schools in your home state regardless of tier. This way, you can have a mix of some realistic options while maintaining the possibility of getting into your dream school.

In conclusion, if this information will be adhered to, it will go a long way to reduce the pain for seeking and getting admitted into the Best Medical Schools.